Knife Cuts on Mastodon Bone Reveal Earlier Humans
2016-05-29 20:00:14


Scientists diving in a Florida river found bones and tools that could change the history of humans in the Americas.(1)
在佛罗里达州河中潜水的科学家发现骨头和可以改变的人在美洲历史的工具。

These new items -- called artifacts -- could mean humans lived in the Americas more than a thousand years earlier than was known before.(2)
这些新的项目 — — 称为工件 — — 可能意味着人类生活在美洲超过一千年前比以前知道。

Researchers from several universities worked together and published their findings in the journal  Science Advances.(3)
来自几所大学的研究人员一起工作,他们的研究结果发表在杂志上

The items were found in the underwater archeological site called Page-Ladsen.(4)
项目在称为页 Ladsen 水下考古遗址被发现。

Long ago it was a watering hole where people and long-extinct animals lived.(5)
很久以前它是水洞人和早已灭绝的动物居住的地方。

Today it is part of the Aucilla River in Florida.(6)
今天它是奥西拉河在佛罗里达州的一部分。

It has provided scientists with human and animal artifacts for more than 50 years.(7)
它提供了科学家人类和动物的文物超过 50 年。

Researchers used carbon dating -- a scientific method -- to find out the age of the objects.(8)
研究人员利用碳测年法 — — 一种科学方法 — — 找出对象的年龄。

Previous carbon-dated items brought up from the waters were between 11,000 and 13,000 years old.(9)
以前碳日项目从水中上来了 11000 名和 13,000 岁之间。

But a newer find? It is more than 14,000 years old.(10)
但新发现吗?它是超过 14000 年旧。

Jessi Halligan teaches anthropology at Florida State University.(11)
杰西里根教在佛罗里达州大学的人类学。

She says the older artifacts change the way researchers will study human history in the Americas.(12)
她说老文物改变的研究人员将研究在美洲的人类历史。

She says these buried items were found in an untouched part of the river. That means there is no question about their age.(13)
她说,这些随葬的物品发现在河的非接触式的一部分。这意味着他们的年龄没有问题。

“So we’ve got to reexamine everything we thought we knew, so it’s kind of opened up this whole new world of first Americans studies.”(14)
"所以我们得重新审视一切我们认为我们知道,所以它种开辟这个全新的世界第一的美国人研究的"。

Halligan says they found a cutting tool — a stone knife — buried underwater.(15)
里根说,他们发现一种切削工具 — — 一把石头刀 — — 水下埋。

The stone was formed into a tool that only a human could make.(16)
石头被形成一种工具,只有一个人能。

This made the researchers take a second look at a mastodon bone brought up from the same water hole in the river. It had been cut.(17)
这使得研究人员第二次看相同的水洞从河里上来的乳齿象骨。它被割断了。

Mastodons were large ancient animals that once lived on Earth, but died off thousands of years ago.(18)
乳齿象被大型的古动物曾经生活在地球上,但几千年前相继死去。

Halligan says there was “no way that the marks on it were made by a natural process.”(19)
里根说:"没有办法上它的标记作了一个自然的过程。"

In other words, those marks on the mastodon bone?(20)
换句话说,那些标记上乳齿象骨吗?

“They were made by people,” she says, people who used tools to kill and cut up the animal.(21)
"他们做的人,"她说,人们谁用工具来杀和切碎的动物。

“When we went back, what we found was a stone tool that could not have been made by nature, that was definitely cultural, that dated to 14,550 years ago.”(22)
"当我们回去了时,什么我们发现是不可能由自然,那是肯定文化,追溯到 14,550 年前的石制工具。

But who were these people who made the tool and killed and ate the mastodon?(23)
但这些制造工具和杀死并吃掉乳齿象的人是谁?

Until this discovery, researchers thought the first Americans were a group they call “Clovis” hunters.(24)
直到这一发现,研究人员认为,第一个美国人是一群他们所谓的"克洛维斯"猎人。

They were a prehistoric Indian culture thought to be the most ancient people in North America.(25)
他们被认为是北美最古老人史前印度文化。

They came to North America from Asia when glaciers melted, and they could walk across land that formed a bridge between the continents.(26)
他们来到北美从亚洲当冰川融化了,和他们可以步行穿过大陆之间形成一座桥的土地。

Now, science puts this newly found Florida tool at more than a thousand years before the Clovis hunters.(27)
现在,科学提出了这个新发现的佛罗里达工具在一千多年前的克洛维斯的猎人。

Halligan says it is significant, or important, that the tool is made by human hands.(28)
里根说 ︰ 它是重要,或者重要的是,该工具由人类的手。

“Now that’s significant, A) because the site shows people were definitely here before Clovis, more, about 1,500 years before Clovis, but B)(29)
"现在,是重要的 A) 因为网站显示人肯定这里之前更多的克洛维斯,在克洛维斯,但 B 之前约 1500 年)

because it shows that people had to have come to the Americas by a different route than we had accepted.(30)
因为它表明人们不得不来到美洲的不同路线比我们已经接受了。

Because, the ice-free corridor that supposedly people came from by land through Canada, was not open 'til 14,000 years ago.”(31)
因为,所谓人无冰走廊来自通过加拿大的土地,不是打开直到一万四千年前。

There had been some evidence that humans were in the area earlier than the Clovis hunters.(32)
有一些证据表明,人类比克洛维斯猎人早在该地区。

But until now, nothing had been proven because so few older remains had been found.(33)
但到目前为止,没有什么已证明因为太少的旧遗体被发现。

Scientists said it is possible changing sea levels could be the reason more evidence had not been found about these ancient Americans before now.(34)
科学家们说,它是可能改变海平面可能是关于这些古代的美国之前现在尚未找到更多的证据的原因。

Halligan told reporters that 14,000 years ago, sea levels were 100 meters lower than today -- because of glaciers.(35)
哈利根告诉记者,一万四千年前,海平面 100 米低于今天 — — 由于冰川。

Over time those large areas of ice melted. And the evidence of the ancient humans in the Americas was lost.(36)
随着时间的推移这些大面积的冰融化了。并且在美洲远古的人类的证据丢失了。

Evidence ended up buried and underwater -- making it much harder to find.(37)
埋地及水下 — — 使它很难找到证据而告终。

The evidence also shows a much different world than the one today.(38)
这些证据还显示很多不同的世界,比一个今天。

There were camels and mastodons and giant armadillo-like animals living there.(39)
有骆驼和乳齿象和巨型犰狳一样的动物,生活在那里。

But they all died, or went extinct, 10,000 or 11,000 years ago.(40)
但他们都死了,或 10000 或 11,000 几年前就灭绝了。

One other interesting discovery — the researchers think they found bones from dogs.(41)
另一个有趣的发现 — — 研究人员认为,他们从狗发现了骨头。

Even back then, they were likely to have been trained to help humans.(42)
即使回到他们则有可能被训练来帮助人类。

Now it will be the job of researchers to try to find new artifacts.(43)
现在它将这项工作的研究人员,试图找到新的工件。

I’m Anne Ball.(44)
我是安妮球。


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