Pervasive sexual harassment takes a toll on women in the sciences
2018-06-13 00:00:00


JUDY WOODRUFF: Now: It turns out the fieldsof science, engineering and medicine face(1)
JUDY WOODRUFF:现在:事实证明,科学,工程和医学领域的面貌

their own MeToo moment.(2)
他们自己的MeToo时刻。

A new landmark report finds sexual harassmentis pervasive in those fields, particularly(3)
一项新的具有里程碑意义的报告发现,性骚扰在这些领域普遍存在,特别是

when it comes to academia.(4)
当涉及到学术界。

Yamiche Alcindor looks at the toll this istaking on women, whether it happens in the(5)
Yamiche Alcindor看着这对女性造成的损失,无论是否发生在女性身上

lab, a lecture hall, a hospital, or in thefield where research is being conducted.(6)
实验室,演讲厅,医院或正在进行研究的领域。

It's the focus of this week's science segment,The Leading Edge.(7)
这是本周科学领域The Leading Edge的焦点。

YAMICHE ALCINDOR: The report from the NationalAcademies of Science, Engineering and Medicine(8)
YAMICHE ALCINDOR:来自美国国家科学,工程和医学院的报告

is the most comprehensive study done yet aboutharassment in these fields.(9)
是关于这些领域骚扰的最全面的研究。

And, in fact, academic workplaces are secondonly to the military in the rate of sexual(10)
而且,实际上,学术工作场所的性别比仅次于军方

harassment.(11)
骚扰。

The report cited studies that found between20 percent and 50 percent of female students(12)
该报告引用的研究发现,女性学生的比例在20%到50%之间

in science, engineering and medicine experiencedharassment, often from faculty and staff.(13)
在科学,工程和医学方面经历过骚扰,通常来自教职员工。

More than 50 percent of faculty said theytoo experienced harassment.(14)
超过50%的教师表示他们也经历过骚扰。

The problem is even worse for women of colorand women who are LGBTQ.(15)
对于颜色和LGBTQ女性而言,问题更为严重。

Dr. Paula Johnson is the co-chair of the panelthat wrote this report.(16)
保拉约翰逊博士是撰写本报告的专家组的共同主席。

She is the president of Wellesley College.(17)
她是韦尔斯利学院的校长。

Thank you, Dr. Johnson.(18)
谢谢约翰逊博士。

The committee identified three types of sexualharassment, sexual coercion, unwanted sexual(19)
该委员会确定了三种类型的性骚扰,性胁迫,不需要的性骚扰

attention, and gender harassment.(20)
注意力和性别骚扰。

What leads to this pervasive culture of harassment?(21)
是什么导致了这种普遍的骚扰文化?

DR.(22)
DR。

PAULA JOHNSON, President, Wellesley College:Well, you know, it is the culture.(23)
韦尔斯利学院校长PAULA JOHNSON:嗯,你知道,这是文化。

And when there are permissive cultures thatallow or -- allow this type of harassment(24)
当有宽容的文化允许或允许这种类型的骚扰时

to occur, the most common being gender harassment,so we like to view it as the put-downs, rather(25)
发生,最常见的是性别骚扰,所以我们喜欢把它看作是压抑,而不是

than the come-ons, statements that make womenfeel unwelcome, are denigrating to women,(26)
而不是来访者,使女性感到不受欢迎的言论,对女性是贬低的,

or pictures or other things in the environment.(27)
或者环境中的图片或其他东西。

That's the kind of environment that actuallynot only has a negative impact on women, particularly(28)
这种环境实际上不仅对女性有负面影响,特别是对女性有负面影响

in their careers, but in other ways, but alsosets the stage for sexual coercion, which(29)
在他们的职业生涯中,但以其他方式,也为性强制设定了舞台

is more the quid pro quo, sleep with me inorder to work with me, or you will be fired,(30)
是更多的交换条件,与我一起睡觉以便和我一起工作,否则你会被解雇,

that type of relationship, or with unwantedsexual attention, unwanted kissing, stroking,(31)
这种类型的关系,或与不必要的性关注,不需要的接吻,抚摸,

everything to sexual assault and rape.(32)
一切都是为了性侵犯和强奸。

YAMICHE ALCINDOR: LGBTQ women and women ofcolor are more likely than their straight(33)
YAMICHE ALCINDOR:LGBTQ女性和有颜色的女性比直发更有可能

white counterparts to be harassed.(34)
白人同行被骚扰。

Why are these groups targeted more than theirwhat and straight counterparts?(35)
为什么这些小组的目标不仅仅是他们的直接对手?

And, also, what happens to the women of allraces and sexual orientations, to their careers?(36)
而且,所有种族和性取向的女性对她们的职业生涯会发生什么?

What happens to these women?(37)
这些女人会发生什么?

DR.(38)
DR。

PAULA JOHNSON: So, it's important to knowthat women, racial and ethnic minorities and(39)
PAULA JOHNSON:所以,重要的是要知道女性,种族和少数族裔和儿童

sexual minorities do experience all formsof harassment, when you put it all together,(40)
性少数群体确实会遇到各种形式的骚扰,当你把它们放在一起时,

more frequently.(41)
更频繁。

And this is something we -- you know, I thinkone can make assumptions, if you put sexism(42)
这是我们 - 你知道的,我认为如果你把性别歧视的话可以做出假设

together with racism and other types of discrimination.(43)
以及种族主义和其他类型的歧视。

But this is work that really needs to be betterunderstood, so more research really needs(44)
但这是真正需要更好理解的工作,所以更多的研究确实需要

to be done.(45)
要做。

And in terms of the impact, what happens towomen in their careers, we know that women(46)
就影响而言,女性在职业生涯中会发生什么,我们知道女性

who have experienced sexual harassment aremore likely to experience depression, anxiety,(47)
谁经历过性骚扰更可能经历抑郁,焦虑,

PTSD, and then are also more likely to takea step away from their careers, remove themselves(48)
创伤后应激障碍,然后也更可能离开他们的职业生涯,脱离自己

from situations, whether it be a committeeor a lab or an actual job.(49)
从情况来看,无论是委员会还是实验室,还是实际的工作。

So the outcome and the impact not only forthe individual, but also for the entirety(50)
所以结果和影响不仅对个人,而且对整体而言

of science, engineering and medicine, is significant.(51)
科学,工程学和医学是重要的。

It's a loss of talent.(52)
这是人才的流失。

YAMICHE ALCINDOR: The report talks about thefact that there needed to be a change in the(53)
YAMICHE ALCINDOR:这份报告谈到了这个事实需要改变

culture and the climate at universities.(54)
文化和大学的气候。

What were the most important recommendationsthat came out of this report, in your mind?(55)
在你的想法中,本报告提出的最重要的建议是什么?

DR.(56)
DR。

PAULA JOHNSON: Yes.(57)
PAULA JOHNSON:是的。

And this report, I'm glad that you're reallyfocusing on this, because this report not(58)
而这份报告,我很高兴你真的专注于此,因为这份报告没有

only focuses on what we need to do to betterhandle cases, to better handle how we can(59)
只专注于我们需要做的更好地处理案件,以更好地处理我们的工作

look to when there are reports of sexual harassment,but how do we prevent it, because we have(60)
看看有什么性骚扰的报道,但我们如何预防,因为我们有

to, one, make sure that the perpetrators ofsexual harassment are addressed.(61)
一,确保性骚扰的肇事者得到解决。

But we have to involve -- we have to reallychange the environment, so that it doesn't(62)
但我们必须涉及 - 我们必须真正改变环境,所以它不会

keep happening.(63)
继续发生。

Leadership from the very top has got to becommitted to really making the end of sexual(64)
最高领导层必须致力于真正实现性的终结

harassment a priority.(65)
骚扰优先。

We also have to really integrate the valuesof diversity, inclusion and respect into every(66)
我们也必须真正地将多元化,包容性和尊重的价值观融入每一个

single policy.(67)
单一政策。

We have to have very clear and communicatedpolicies.(68)
我们必须有非常明确和沟通的政策。

We also have to make our leadership at everylevel more diverse.(69)
我们还必须使我们在各个层面的领导力更加多样化。

And that has to do with diversity in termsof gender, and also race and ethnicity.(70)
这在性别,种族和民族方面与多样性有关。

We have more and more women coming in to science,engineering and medicine, but we can't really(71)
我们有越来越多的女性进入科学,工程和医学领域,但我们不能

wait for those women to make their way throughthat pipeline.(72)
等待那些女人穿过那条管道。

We have to make sure that we're actively advancingwomen.(73)
我们必须确保我们正在积极推进女性。

YAMICHE ALCINDOR: I want to talk to you aboutthe MeToo movement.(74)
YAMICHE ALCINDOR:我想和你谈谈MeToo的运动。

DR.(75)
DR。

PAULA JOHNSON: Yes.(76)
PAULA JOHNSON:是的。

YAMICHE ALCINDOR: The report was in the workslast two years, well before the MeToo movement.(77)
YAMICHE ALCINDOR:这份报告在MeToo运动的前两年正在进行中。

But how do you think the MeToo movement andthe conversation about harassment in other(78)
但你如何看待MeToo运动和关于其他骚扰的谈话

fields is going to impact how this reportis received by the sciences?(79)
这些领域是否会影响科学如何接收这份报告?

DR.(80)
DR。

PAULA JOHNSON: Well, it has raised the profileof how we are thinking about sexual harassment.(81)
PAULA JOHNSON:嗯,它提高了我们对性骚扰的看法。

One thing I think we do -- so, that's a goodthing, right?(82)
我认为我们有一件事 - 那就是好事,对吧?

It's unfortunate that it is so pervasive acrossall areas, but one of the things is, it does(83)
不幸的是,它在所有领域都非常普遍,但其中的一件事就是它

raise awareness.(84)
提高意识。

But I think we have to be very clear thata lot of the MeToo movement is focused, again,(85)
但我认为我们必须非常清楚,很多MeToo运动都集中在了一起,

on the most egregious perpetrators.(86)
对最恶毒的肇事者。

We have to really think about, again, theculture, of how we are changing the culture,(87)
我们必须真正思考我们如何改变文化的文化,

so that we truly prevent sexual harassmentfrom occurring.(88)
以便我们真正防止性骚扰的发生。

And also, through that, how do we also supportthe targets of sexual harassment?(89)
而且,通过这一点,我们如何也支持性骚扰的目标?

And that's a very important set of recommendationsin the report.(90)
这是报告中一组非常重要的建议。

YAMICHE ALCINDOR: I want to ask you one otherquestion.(91)
YAMICHE ALCINDOR:我想问你另外一个问题。

And it's about the fact that there was a petitionlaunched last month urging the national academies(92)
事实上,上个月发起了一项请愿,敦促国家科学院

to revoke the membership of anyone found guiltyof harassment or assault.(93)
撤销任何被发现有骚扰或殴打罪的成员。

Is it time to revoke the membership of peoplefound guilty?(94)
现在是撤销被判有罪的人的成员的时候了吗?

DR.(95)
DR。

PAULA JOHNSON: So, what I'm going to say tothat is the national academies are reviewing(96)
PAULA JOHNSON:所以,我要对此说的是国家院校正在审查

their policies and procedures, and they willcome to a set of decisions around how they(97)
他们的政策和程序,他们将围绕他们如何做出一系列决定

will move forward.(98)
将前进。

They're doing that based on the findings ofthis report, and we really hope that all institutions(99)
他们是基于这份报告的调查结果这样做的,我们真的希望所有的机构

that are impacted in academia do the same.(100)
在学术界受到影响的人也是这样做的。

YAMICHE ALCINDOR: So, should they or shouldthey not revoke the membership of...(101)
YAMICHE ALCINDOR:那么,他们应该还是不应该撤销......的成员资格......

DR.(102)
DR。

PAULA JOHNSON: I think that that is reallysomething that the academies have to take(103)
PAULA JOHNSON:我认为这确实是学院必须采取的措施

up.(104)
向上。

And this is our report and how we are puttingforth the recommendations.(105)
这是我们的报告以及我们如何提出建议。

YAMICHE ALCINDOR: Dr. Paula Johnson, thanksfor joining us.(106)
YAMICHE ALCINDOR:Paula Johnson博士,感谢您加入我们。

DR.(107)
DR。

PAULA JOHNSON: Thank you.(108)
PAULA JOHNSON:谢谢。


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